Kallanai dam is called as world first dam. Dam is constructed on the banks of river of Cauvery in Tamil Nadu .Kallanai is known as Grand Anicut constructed by the chola king Karikalan during the 1st century AD.Kallanai dam in trichy is considered to be world first dam and one of the oldest water-regulator structures in the world that is still in use.
Kallanai Dam is a Tamil word which means stone dam. Kallanai Dam in trichy is a massive dam of unhewn stone which is of 329 meters long and 20 meters wide, constructed across the main flow of the river Cauvery.
This dam gives into two lines at the island Sri Rangam.
The northern channel is called kollidam and the other is the same name as Cauvery and this empties into Bay of Bengal at poompuhar.
This kallanai dam was basically designed only for the storage of water, afterwards it was fitted with gates to divert the stored waters of Cauvery across fertile delta area for irrigation.
The area irrigated by this ancient irrigation network is about 69,000 acres which is increased to about 100000 acres by the during 20th century.
This dam is still in a good condition and has stayed as a model to later engineers including Sir Arthut Cotton’s dam across kollidam, the important branch of river Cauvery.
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